|The Gender-related Development Index (GDI): This UN index is a gender-focused expansion of the organization’s Human Development Index (HDI). Its components are life expectancy, illiteracy, education, and income. The GDI reflects the situation of women in three domains: health and fertility, empowerment, and labor market. It monitors the impact of gender inequality on general human development. The GDI is constructed in such a manner as to follow the influence of national achievements on the overall development of each country examined by the HDI. The operationalization of women’s health is expressed by two variables: the rate of mortality in childbirth and the birthrate among young girls. The empowerment domain is also measured via two variables: the rate of women in parliament and the rate of women with higher education. The operationalization of the degree of equality between the genders in the labor market is expressed by women’s labor market participation levels.|
|The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM): The purpose of this index of the UN is to measure inequality between men and women all over the world with respect to their active participation in political and economic life- and decision-making processes in their countries. The GEM’s components are the rate of women in parliament, the rate of women in key economic positions, and income gaps. Its operationalization is based on three indicators: the rate of women in parliament, the rate of women in economic decision-making positions (administrative, managerial, professional, and technical) and gaps in income between women and men. The GEM is grounded in the concept of agency—that is, what women are capable of executing—and less on their feelings or self-perception.|
|The Gender Inequality Index (GII): his index was developed after its two UN predecessors were subjected to fierce criticism. Its components are health (fertility and maternal mortality), empowerment (rate of women in parliament and education), and rate of women in the labor market.|
|al structure. The OECD
maintains the Gender, Institutions and Development Database, which consists of over sixty indicators of equality between the genders and information on 162 countries. The database was established in 2006 to assist researchers and decision makers in understanding the obstacles that were obstructing the social and economic development of women. The database is constructed on the basis of several key variables that measure gender equality in the traditional manner in terms of education (illiteracy rates, years of study, and so on), health (for example, birthrate and fertility), economic situation, and political situation (rate of women in parliament). The social institutions in the OECD database are perceived as long-term codes for behavior, norms, traditions, and formal laws and informal rules that may contribute to gender inequality in all aspects of life. In addition to these traditional domains, the database consists of indicators of social institutions as reflected in social practices and legal norms that create inequality between women and men. The five institutional domains of the index are family codes, civil liberty, physical fairness, preference for male children, and property rights. The index covers a wide range of countries (102). However, it was designed primarily to examine problems associated with countries in the developing world and does not include countries that are members of the OECD.
|The Global Gender Gap Index: The index’s components are labor market participation (including wage gaps and rate of managers and senior employees in economic positions), education, health and survival, and political empowerment (women in parliament, length of terms served).
|The Gender Equity Index (GEI): Its components are labor market participation, education (illiteracy), and empowerment (senior positions).|
|The African Gender Status Index: Its components are social power (education,
health), economic power (income, labor market participation, access to resources), and political power (senior positions in parliament, public sector, civil society institutions).